BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the timing and amount of caffeine intake by women and men undergoing IVF and gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) on oocyte retrieval, sperm parameters, fertilization, multiple gestations, miscarriage, and live births.

METHODS: A prospective study of 221 couples was conducted in Southern California between 1993 and 1998. ‘Usual’ caffeine intake during lifetime and 1 year prior to attempt, caffeine intake during the week of the initial clinic visit, as well as intake during the week of the procedure, was evaluated from beverages (coffee, soda, tea) and chocolates.

RESULTS: Not achieving a live birth was significantly associated with ‘usual’ female caffeine consumption [adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 3.1 (1.1, 9.7) and 3.9 (1.3, 11.6) for intake of >2-50 and 50 mg/day, compared with 0-2 mg/day] and consumption during the week of the initial visit [2.9 (1.1, 7.5) and 3.8 (1.4, 10.7)] female compared with 0-2 mg/day, although caffeine use was low. Infant gestational age decreased by 3.8 (-6.9, -0.7) or 3.5 (-6.7, -0.3) weeks for women who consumed >50 mg/day of caffeine ‘usually’ or during the week of the initial visit. The odds of having multiple gestations increased by 2.2 (1.1, 4.4) and 3.0 (1.2, 7.4) for men who increased their ‘usual’ intake or intake during the week of the initial visit by an extra 100 mg/day. Caffeine intake was not significantly associated with other outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first IVF/GIFT study to report any effect of caffeine on live births, gestational age, and multiple gestations. If these findings are replicated, caffeine use should be minimized prior to and while undergoing IVF/GIFT.

The objective of our study was to review the effectiveness of needle acupuncture in treating the common and disabling problem of pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Two small trials on mixed pelvic/back pain and 1 large high-quality trial on pelvic pain met the inclusion criteria. Acupuncture, as an adjunct to standard treatment, was superior to standard treatment alone and physiotherapy in relieving mixed pelvic/back pain. Women with well-defined pelvic pain had greater relief of pain with a combination of acupuncture and standard treatment, compared to standard treatment alone or stabilizing exercises and standard treatment. We used a narrative synthesis due to significant clinical heterogeneity between trials. Few and minor adverse events were reported. We conclude that limited evidence supports acupuncture use in treating pregnancy-related pelvic and back pain. Additional high-quality trials are needed to test the existing promising evidence for this relatively safe and popular complementary therapy.
BACKGROUND: We seek to determine whether dietary and supplement intake of specific micronutrients (zinc and folate) and antioxidants (vitamins C, E and {beta}-carotene) is associated with semen quality.

METHODS: Ninety-seven healthy, non-smoking men provided semen and were interviewed. Average daily nutrient intake from food and supplements was derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Intake levels were summarized as low, moderate and high. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, progressive motility and total progressively motile sperm count (TPMS) were measured.

RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, a high intake of antioxidants was associated with better semen quality but, in almost all cases, there was no clear dose relationship in that moderate intake groups had the poorest semen quality. For example, positive associations were observed between vitamin C intake and sperm number as reflected in the higher mean count (P=0.04), concentration (P=0.05) and TPMS (P=0.09); between vitamin E intake and progressive motility (P=0.04) and TPMS (P=0.05); and between {beta}-carotene intake and sperm concentration (P=0.06) and progressive motility (P=0.06). Folate and zinc intake were not associated with improved semen quality.

CONCLUSIONS: In a convenience sample of healthy non-smoking men from a non-clinical setting, higher antioxidant intake was associated with higher sperm numbers and motility.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the ascorbic acid (AA) in the follicular fluid in women treated by in vitro fertilization and embryonic transfer levels (IVF/ET) and to analyse the influence of vitamin C supplementation on the results of infertility treatment.

TYPE OF THE STUDY: Prospective study in women treated by IVF/ET.

METHODS: The influence of vitamin C supplementation on the outcome of infertility treatment in the assisted reproduction programme in 76 women (38 of them smokers, 38 non-smokers) was studied. Half the women (19 smokers and 19 non-smokers) were administered vitamin C in daily doses of 500 mg in so-called pellets allowing for gradual release over 8 to 12 hours. The control group consisted of the same number of smokers and non-smokers. In all the women, ascorbic acid levels were determined in two urine samples (prior to supplementation and at follicle retrieval) and in follicular fluid by means of a colorimetric method. Ovarian response to hormonal stimulation with gonadotropins (hMG, FSH) at a dosage of 150-225 IU per day combined with GnRH analogues in the short (buserelin) or long (triptorelin) protocols, and 5,000-10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin was evaluated based on the number of follicles created and number of retrieved oocytes. Fertilisation was assessed, based on the number of successfully fertilised oocytes (fertilisation rate) and based on the number of cultivated embryos. The success of the infertility treatment was evaluated based on the number of pregnancies.

RESULTS: Ascorbic acid levels in follicles were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in women with vitamin C supplementation than in the control group (8.98 +/- 5.09 vs. 5.04 +/- 2.85 mg/l). The administration of vitamin C during the period of hormonal stimulation showed a statistically insignificant impact in terms of the higher number of pregnancies (34.2% vs. 23.7%). Vitamin supplementation had a greater impact on the number of pregnancies in the non-smokers\’ group (57.9% vs. 31.6%). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in non-smoking women than in smokers–44.7% vs. 13.2%, which appears to be a reason for asking women to cease smoking prior to infertility treatment.

New Rochelle, NY, December 16, 2008 — A study comparing breastfed and formula fed infants across time showed that the known beneficial effects of breastfeeding are greater than the potential risks associated with infant exposure to chemicals such as dioxins that may be present in breastmilk, according to a report published in the December issue (Volume 3, Number 4) of Breastfeeding Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( and the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. The paper is available free online at

This compelling study, entitled “The Heart of the Matter on breastmilk and Environmental Chemicals: Essential Points for Health Care Providers and New Parents,” encompassed an historical review of the medical literature and included time periods when levels of environmental chemicals were higher than they tend to be at present.

The authors of the report, Judy LaKind, PhD (LaKind Associates, Catonsville, MD), Cheston Berlin, Jr, MD (The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, PA), and CAPT Donald Mattison, MD (National Institutes of Health), advise health care providers to continue to encourage new mothers to breastfeed their babies. In agreement with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) continuing support of breastfeeding, this study’s findings, based on epidemiologic data, do not downplay the adverse effects of exposure to dioxins and other environmental toxins. However, the authors distinguish between the statistical significance of risk/benefit assessments in an individual compared to population effects.

“When breastmilk was chosen by regulatory agencies as a handy medium for measuring environmental toxins, the public became alarmed that breastmilk was contaminated. The authors, eminent authorities on the subject have put these fears to rest,” says Ruth A. Lawrence, MD, Editor-in-Chief ofBreastfeeding Medicine, from the Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry.

BACKGROUND: The composition of the intestinal flora in young children, if unfavourable, may increase the susceptibility to allergic disorders. Beneficial intestinal microbes originate from the maternal vaginal tract and thus are more likely to be transferred during vaginal births than during Caesarean sections (C-sections).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children born by C-section have a different risk of allergic disorders compared with those delivered vaginally. We also tested the hypothesis that the risk of allergic disorders is highest for children born after ‘repeat C-sections’.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 8,953 children aged 3-10 years. Children diagnosed with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR), asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD), or food allergies were identified from the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region electronic records. The children’s sex, birth weight, birth order, postnatal exposure to antibiotics as well as the mothers’ age, ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking status during pregnancy, and use of asthma or hayfever medications were identified through the mothers’ medical records or through the Oregon Birth Registry.

RESULTS: The risk of being diagnosed with AR was significantly higher in the children born by C-section than in those delivered vaginally: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14-1.63. Delivery by C-section was also associated with the subsequent diagnosis of asthma (OR=1.24%, 95% CI=1.01-1.53); this association was gender specific, with a positive association restricted to girls (OR for asthma in girls: OR=1.53%, 95% CI=1.11-2.10; in boys: OR=1.08%, 95% CI=0.81-1.43). There was no significant association between mode of delivery and AD. If children born in a ‘repeat C-section’ were considered separately the risk of being diagnosed with AR increased further (OR=1.78%, 95% CI=1.34-2.37). The same increase was noted for asthma in girls (OR=1.83%, 95% CI=1.13-2.97) but not in boys.

CONCLUSION: Caesarean sections may be associated with an increased risk of developing AR in childhood.

The effects of caffeine consumption on delayed conception were evaluated in a European multicenter study on risk factors of infertility. Information was collected retrospectively on time of unprotected intercourse for the first pregnancy and the most recent waiting time episode in a randomly selected sample of 3,187 women aged 25–44 years from five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) between August 1991 and February 1993. The consumption of caffeinated beverages at the beginning of the waiting time was used to estimate daily caffeine intake, which was categorized as 0–100, 101–300, 301–500, and >501 mg. Risk of subfecundity (>9.5 months) and the fecundability ratio, respectively, were assessed by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard analyses, adjusting for age, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption, frequency of intercourse, educational level, working status, use of oral contraceptives, and country. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.45 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.03–2.04) for subfecundity in the first pregnancy was observed for women drinking more than 500 mg of caffeine per day, the effect being relatively stronger in smokers (OR = 1.56, 95% Cl 0.92–2.63) than in nonsmokers (OR = 1.38, 95% Cl 0.85–2.23). Women in the highest level of consumption had an increase in the time leading to the first pregnancy of 11 % (hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% Cl 0.78–1.03). These associations were observed consistently in all countries as well as for the most recent waiting time episode. The authors conclude that high levels of caffeine intake may delay conception among fertile women.
Ovulatory dysfunction is commonly seen in gynecology clinic. It may cause infertility, amenia, functional uterine bleeding and a variety of complications. This research according to TCM theory records treating with acupuncture 34 patients suffering from ovulatory dysfunction. Changes in clinical symptoms and some relative targets are reported, plus findings in animal experiments. The effect of acupuncture in improving ovulation and the rationale are discussed. According to TCM theory concerning the generative and physiologic axis of women, this research involved the following points: Ganshu (UB 18), Shenshu (UB 23), Guanyuan (Ren 4), Zhongji (Ren 3), and Sanyinjiao (Sp 6). The reinforcement and reduction of acupuncture enables it to strengthen liver and kidney. Through the Chong and Ren channels it nourishes uterus to adjust the patient’s axis function and recover ovulation. Treated on an average of 30 times, the patients’ symptoms improved to varying degrees. The marked effective rate was 35.29%, the total effective rate being 82.35%. BBT, VS, CMS, and B ultrasonic picture all improved to some degree. The results also showed that acupuncture may adjust FSH, LH, and E2 in two directions and raise the progesterone level, bringing them to normal. The animal experiments confirmed this result. Results showed that acupuncture may adjust endocrine function of the generative and physiologic axis of women, thus stimulating ovulation. The results of this research will provide some scientific basis for treating and further studying this disorder.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic disorders represent a serious public health problem in children. The chronic nature of these diseases and the fear of known side effects of synthetic drugs influence many families to seek complementary and alternative medicine. This review focuses on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal products and acupuncture for treating pediatric allergies.

RECENT FINDINGS: Given the general safety profile and reputed efficacy, TCM are well received by the general population. However, compared with the long human history and popularity of the use of TCM, research into its efficacy and safety is still in its infancy. In the last 2-3 years, there have been more controlled studies of TCM for allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Several publications including ours indicate that some TCM herbal formulas are well tolerated and produce some level of efficacy. Some herbal formulas also showed beneficial immunomodualtory effects. Several preclinical studies demonstrated that the food allergy herbal formula-2 was effective in protecting against peanut anaphylaxis in animal models. Two TCM products have entered clinical trials in the United States for treating asthma and food allergy, respectively. Both of these trials include children.

SUMMARY: Recent studies indicate that TCM therapy including herbal medicines and acupuncture for allergic disorders in children is well tolerated. There are also promising clinical and objective improvements. More controlled clinical studies are encouraged.

BACKGROUND: Non cephalic presentation in childbirth involves various risks to both the mother and the foetus. The incidence in Spain is 3.8% of all full-term pregnancies. The most common technique used to end the gestation in cases of non cephalic presentation is that of caesarian section, and although it provokes a lower rate of morbi-mortality than does vaginal delivery in such situations, there remains the possibility of traumatic injury to the foetal head and neck, while maternal morbidity is also increased. The application of heat (moxibustion) to an acupuncture point, in order to correct non cephalic presentation, has been practised in China since ancient times, but as yet there is insufficient evidence of its real effectiveness.

METHODS/DESIGN: The experimental design consists of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial with three parallel arms, used to compare real moxibustion, sham moxibustion and the natural course of events, among pregnant women with a non cephalic presentation and a gestational duration of 33-35 weeks (estimated by echography). The participants in the trial will be blinded to both interventions. The results obtained will be analyzed by professionals, blinded with respect to the allocation to the different types of intervention. In addition, we intend to carry out a economic analysis.

DISCUSSION: This trial will contribute to the development of evidence concerning moxibustion in the correction of non cephalic presentations. The primary outcome variable is the proportion of cephalic presentations at term. As secondary outcomes, we will evaluate the proportion of cephalic presentations at week 38 of gestation, determined by echography, together with the safety of the technique, the specificity of moxibustion and the control of the blinding process.This study has been funded by the Health Ministry of the Andalusian Regional Government.

Objectives. To determine whether the commonly used over-the-counter medications dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine are superior to placebo for the treatment of nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty associated with upper respiratory infections and to determine whether parents have improved sleep quality when their children receive the medications when compared with placebo.

Methods. Parents of 100 children with upper respiratory infections were questioned to assess the frequency, severity, and bothersome nature of the nocturnal cough. Their answers were recorded on 2 consecutive days, initially on the day of presentation, when no medication had been given the previous evening, and then again on the subsequent day, when either medication or placebo was given before bedtime. Sleep quality for both the child and the parent were also assessed for both nights.

Results. For the entire cohort, all outcomes were significantly improved on the second night of the study when either medication or placebo was given. However, neither diphenhydramine nor dextromethorphan produced a superior benefit when compared with placebo for any of the outcomes studied. Insomnia was reported more frequently in those who were given dextromethorphan, and drowsiness was reported more commonly in those who were given diphenhydramine.

Conclusions. Diphenhydramine and dextromethorphan are not superior to placebo in providing nocturnal symptom relief for children with cough and sleep difficulty as a result of an upper respiratory infection. Furthermore, the medications given to children do not result in improved quality of sleep for their parents when compared with placebo. Each clinician should consider these findings, the potential for adverse effects, and the individual and cumulative costs of the drugs before recommending them to families.

Objectives: To compare the effects of a single nocturnal dose of buckwheat honey or honey-flavored dextromethorphan (DM) with no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infections.

Design: A survey was administered to parents on 2 consecutive days, first on the day of presentation when no medication had been given the prior evening and then the next day when honey, honey-flavored DM, or no treatment had been given prior to bedtime according to a partially double-blinded randomization scheme.

Setting: A single, outpatient, general pediatric practice.

Participants: One hundred five children aged 2 to 18 years with upper respiratory tract infections, nocturnal symptoms, and illness duration of 7 days or less.

Intervention: A single dose of buckwheat honey, honey-flavored DM, or no treatment administered 30 minutes prior to bedtime.

Main Outcome Measures: Cough frequency, cough severity, bothersome nature of cough, and child and parent sleep quality.

Results: Significant differences in symptom improvement were detected between treatment groups, with honey consistently scoring the best and no treatment scoring the worst. In paired comparisons, honey was significantly superior to no treatment for cough frequency and the combined score, but DM was not better than no treatment for any outcome. Comparison of honey with DM revealed no significant differences.

Conclusions: In a comparison of honey, DM, and no treatment, parents rated honey most favorably for symptomatic relief of their child’s nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty due to upper respiratory tract infection. Honey may be a preferable treatment for the cough and sleep difficulty associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infection.

BACKGROUND: Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord greater than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of different policies of timing of cord clamping at delivery of the placenta on maternal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Child birth Group’s Trials Register (December 2007).

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing early and late cord clamping.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 trials of 2989 mothers and their babies. No significant differences between early and late cord clamping were seen for postpartum hemorrhage or severe postpartum hemorrhage in any of the five trials (2236 women) which measured this outcome (relativerisk (RR) for postpartum hemorrhage 500 mls or more 1.22, 95% (CI) 0.96 to 1.55). For neonatal outcomes, our review showed both benefits and harms for late cord clamping. Following birth, there was a significant increase in infants needing phototherapy for jaundice (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.92; five trials of 1762 infants) in the late compared with early clamping group. This was accompanied by significant increases in newborn hemoglobin levels in the late cord clamping group compared with early cord clamping (weighted mean difference 2.17 g/dL; 95% CI 0.28 to 4.06; three trials of 671 infants), although this effect did not persist past six months. Infant ferritin levels remained higher in the late clamping group than the early clamping group at six months.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSION: One definition of active management includes directions to administer an uterotonic with birth of the anterior shoulder of the baby and to clamp the umbilical cord within 30-60 seconds of birth of the baby (which is not always feasible in practice). In this review delaying clamping of the cord for at least two to three minutes seems not to increase the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. In addition, late cord clamping can be advantageous for the infant by improving iron status which may be of clinical value particularly in infants where access to good nutrition is poor, although delaying clamping increases the risk of jaundice requiring phototherapy. McDonald SJ, Middleton P. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.